1st Faculty of Medicine Charles University 1st Faculty of Medicine Charles University Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics and Neonatology
ksva 17.01.2022

State exam questions (new)

 

Questions for the final state examination in Gynaecology and Obstetrics

There is a combination of theoretical questions and clinical questions.

Clinical question focuses on the management of a patient (diagnosis and treatment) with described symptoms.

(For clinical questions recommended sources are Oxford Handbook of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Emergencies in Obstetrics and Gynecology.  For Czech students was provided summary which is available in Czech for download)


1.

a) Prenatal care in the Czech Republic (system of visits, guidelines)

b) Clinical question - Bleeding in the third trimester of pregnancy (diagnosis, differential

diagnosis, management)

c) Malignant tumours of the ovary, types, management, treatment

d) Clinical question - Genital bleeding in children and adolescents (diagnosis, differential

diagnosis, management)


2.

a) High-risk pregnancy - definition, types of risks

b) Clinical question - Hypertension after the 20th week of pregnancy (diagnosis,

differential diagnosis, treatment)

c) Uterine myomatosis - types, complications

d) Clinical question - Postmenopausal bleeding (diagnosis, differential diagnosis,

treatment)


3.

a) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pregnancy and labour

b) Clinical question - Vomiting in pregnancy (diagnosis, differential diagnosis according to

trimester, management)

c) Menstrual bleeding disorders – types, diagnosis, treatment

d) Clinical question - Urinary incontinence (diagnosis, differential diagnosis,

management)


4.

a) Internal diseases in pregnancy (focusing mainly on cardiovascular, endocrinological,

hepatic and pulmonary diseases)

b) Clinical question – Intrapartum haemorrhage (management of the patient - diagnosis,

differential diagnosis, treatment)

c) Examination of an infertile couple, evaluation of the causes of infertility

d) Clinical question - Cardiopulmonary decompensation and sudden cardiac arrest during and after gynaecological surgery (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)


5.

a) Main statistical indicators in obstetrics. Causes and prevention of maternal and

perinatal mortality and morbidity.

b) Clinical question – Fever in the puerperium (diagnosis, differential diagnosis,

management).

c) Sexually transmitted diseases (definition, examples, diagnosis, treatment)

d) Clinical question - Irregular uterine bleeding (differential diagnosis according to the

woman's life stage, diagnosis, management)


6.

a) Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, HELLP syndrome

b) Clinical question – Postpartum haemorrhage (management of the patient - diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment)

c) Thromboembolic disease in gynaecology - etiopathogenesis, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention

d) Clinical question - Painful menstruation (differential diagnosis, diagnosis, treatment)


7.

a) Anatomy of the pelvis and birth canal.

b) Clinical question - Hypertonus of the uterus in pregnant women (management of the

patient - diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)

c) Diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of gynaecological emergencies.

d) Clinical question - Excessive menstrual bleeding (management of the patient –

diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)


8.

a) Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy

b) Clinical question - Pruritus of the skin in pregnancy (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)

c) Congenital defects of the uterus and vagina - causes, diagnosis, treatment, disorders of sexual differentiation

d) Clinical question - Contact bleeding and bleeding after intercourse (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)


9.

a) External and internal obstetric examination at the end of pregnancy and during labour, position, presentation and lie of the foetus

b) Clinical question - Breast redness in the puerperium (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)

c) The life stages of a woman from the gynaecologist's point of view. Changes of the reproductive organs of a woman during her lifetime

d) Clinical question - Chronic pelvic pain (differential diagnosis, diagnosis, management)


10.

a) Determination of gestational age, system of prenatal care in the Czech Republic.

b) Clinical question - Back pain in pregnancy (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment)

c) Diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and management of gynaecological emergencies

d) Clinical question - Patient with uterine fibroids - management and treatment options


11.

a) Rh incompatibility, isoimmunization - definition, diagnosis, treatment

b) Clinical question - Headache in pregnancy (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment)

c) Menstrual cycle, regulation and disorders

d) Clinical question - OASI after delivery with stool leakage (what is OASI, classification

system, differential diagnosis of anal incontinence, treatment options)


12.

a) Physiological changes in the mother's body during pregnancy and their significance

b) Clinical question- Abdominal pain in the second half of pregnancy, irritable uterus (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)

c) Treatment of infertility, assisted reproduction technology, complications of infertility treatment

d) Clinical question - Dyspareunia (differential diagnosis, typical clinical findings and history, age of the patient, risk factors)


13.

a) Acute and chronic foetal hypoxia

b) Clinical question - Abnormal urine dipstick test results during routine monitoring in

pregnancy (abnormal findings in diabetes, preeclampsia, infection, suggestions for

further management)

c) Endometriosis - types, symptoms

d) Clinical question – Urinary frequency and urgency (diagnosis, differential

diagnosis, treatment options)


14.

a) Pathology of early pregnancy from the perspective of foetal egg development, definition of terms

b) Clinical question - Reduced foetal activity (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)

c) Vulvovaginal infections

d) Clinical question - Dysuria, slow urine flow, sensation of incomplete bladder emptying (differential diagnosis of symptoms, management)


15.

a) Multiple pregnancy - types, complications

b) Clinical question - Swelling in the second half of pregnancy (diagnosis, differential

diagnosis, management)

c) Appendicitis and adnexitis - differential diagnosis

d) Clinical question - Primary amenorrhoea (diagnosis, differential diagnosis,

management)


16.

a) Breech presentation - definition, types, management of labour

b) Clinical question - Amniotic fluid leakage before 20th week of pregnancy (diagnosis,

differential diagnosis, management)

c) Ectopic pregnancy - localizations, diagnosis, management

d) Clinical question - Oligomenorrhoea (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment)


17.

a) Embolic events in pregnancy and labour

b) Clinical question - Amniotic fluid leakage at term before the onset of uterine activity –

PROM (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)

c) Planned parenthood, contraception, sterilization

d) Clinical question - Secondary amenorrhoea (diagnosis, differential diagnosis,

treatment)


18.

a) Peripartum life-threatening haemorrhage

b) Clinical question - Amniotic fluid leakage after 24th week of pregnancy (PPROM)

(diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)

c) Artificial termination of pregnancy - indications, performance, legal standards

d) Clinical question - Hypotension, oliguria, bleeding after gynaecological surgery

(differential diagnosis, diagnosis, management)


19.

a) Placenta - morphology, function, pathology, examination

b) Clinical question - Sudden unconsciousness during and after labour (diagnosis,

differential diagnosis, management)

c) Endoscopic methods in gynaecology - definition, types, indications

d) Clinical question - Positive pregnancy test and lower abdominal pain (diagnosis,

differential diagnosis, management)


20.

a) Infectious diseases and pregnancy

b) Clinical question – maternal collapse in pregnancy (diagnosis, differential diagnosis,

management)

c) Diagnosis and treatment of gynaecological precancerous lesions

d) Clinical question - Routine ward round after laparoscopic hysterectomy (what, how,

why I routinely check, possible complications, their manifestations)


21.

a) Physiology and pathology of puerperium and lactation. Principles of care of women in puerperium.

b) Clinical question – Bleeding in the second trimester of pregnancy (management of the patient - diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment)

c) Malignant tumours of the cervix

d) Clinical question – Finding of free fluid in the abdominal cavity after gynaecological surgery (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)


22.

a) Abnormal and pathological foetal lie and presentation, diagnosis, management of

labour

b) Clinical question - Convulsions in pregnancy (diagnosis, differential diagnosis,

management)

c) Malignant tumours of the uterine body

d) Clinical question - Vaginal discharge in a patient of reproductive age (diagnosis,

differential diagnosis, treatment)


23.

a) Foetal delivery in the cephalic presentation, physiological course

f) Clinical question - Wound redness after caesarean section (diagnosis, differential

diagnosis, treatment)

g) Risk factors for gynaecological malignancies, hereditary syndromes

h) Clinical question - Oliguria and flatulence after ovulation induction (diagnosis,

differential diagnosis, management)


24.

a) Disorders of the foetal delivery mechanism in the 1st , 2nd and 3rd stage of labour

b) Clinical question - Dyspnoea in pregnancy (management of the patient - diagnosis,

differential diagnosis, management)

c) Surgical treatment of gynaecological malignant tumours

d) Clinical question - Palpable lump in the breast (diagnosis, differential diagnosis,

management)


25.

a) Shock in pregnancy

b) Clinical question - Sudden devastating pain in labour (diagnosis, differential diagnosis,

management)

c) Breast disease (classification, diagnosis, treatment)

d) Clinical question - Pelvic and lumbar pain after gynaecological surgery (diagnosis,

differential diagnosis, management)


26.

a) Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy

b) Clinical question - Hypotension after delivery (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)

c) Precancerous lesions of the vulva, vagina, endometrium, and cervix

d) Clinical question - Bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)


27.

a) Premature newborn and low birth weight newborn - division, anatomical and physiological signs of prematurity.

b) Clinical question – Postpartum bleeding (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)

c) Urinary incontinence in women - definition, types, diagnosis, treatment

d) Clinical question – Vulvar and vaginal pruritus (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment)


28.

a) The most common causes leading to failure of adaptation of the newborn,

resuscitation of the newborn.

b) Clinical question - Painful swelling of the lower limbs in pregnancy (diagnosis,

differential diagnosis, management)

c) Complications of laparoscopy and hysteroscopy

d) Clinical question – Preoperative medical assessment, evaluation, and preparation

prior vaginal hysterectomy - types of examinations and procedures and rationale


29.

a) Delivery injuries - causes, classification, treatment, prevention.

b) Clinical question - Bleeding manifestations related to pregnancy (diagnosis,

differential diagnosis, treatment)

c) Reproductive surgery

d) Clinical question - Peri-menstrual and post-coital bleeding (diagnosis, differential

diagnosis, management)


30.

a) Prenatal screening of chromosomal aberrations

b) Clinical question - Excessive weight gain in pregnancy (diagnosis, differential diagnosis,

management)

c) Primary and secondary prevention, screening for gynaecological tumours.

d) Clinical question - Irregular bleeding in the 4th decade of life (diagnosis, differential

diagnosis, management)


31.

a) Ultrasound screening in pregnancy - distribution and significance

b) Clinical question - Discharge in pregnancy (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment)

c) Breast cancer - types, diagnosis, treatment

d) Clinical question – Genitourinary prolapse 6 months after delivery (diagnosis,

differential diagnosis, treatment)


32.

a) Induction of labour

b) Clinical question - Dysuria and urinary frequency in pregnancy (diagnosis, differential

diagnosis, treatment)

c) Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy for gynaecological malignancies –

typical examples

d) Clinical question - Choice of contraceptive method (patient management - diagnosis,

differential diagnosis, treatment)


33.

a) Operative vaginal delivery - types, indications, complications

b) Clinical question - Urinary retention in pregnancy (management of the patient –

diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)

c) Fertility-sparing treatment in gynaecological oncology - definition, examples

d) Clinical question – Elevated temperature and pain after gynaecological surgery by

laparotomy (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment modalities)


34.

a) Caesarean section

b) Clinical question - Pain in the lower abdomen and around the pubic symphysis prior

to labour (differential diagnosis and treatment)

c) Malignant tumours of the vulva and vagina

d) Clinical question - Vaginal discharge in postmenopausal woman (diagnosis, differential

diagnosis, causes, treatment)


35.

a) Foetal hypoxia during pregnancy and labour

b) Clinical question - Non-progressive labour (diagnosis, causes, management)

c) Prebioptic examination methods of the lower genital tract

d) Clinical question - Complications of antibiotic treatment (allergic manifestations, diarrhoea, dysmicrobia) (management of the patient - diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment)


36.

a) Pathology of the pelvis and relation to the management of labour

b) Clinical question - Fetal heart rate abnormalities during labour (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management)

c) Benign tumours and pseudotumours of the ovary

d) Clinical question - Constipation, vomiting, gas and stool passage disorders after gynaecological surgery (management of the patient - diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment)


37.

a) The most common congenital anomalies. Teratogens

b) Clinical question - Bradycardia, cyanosis and hypotonia of the newborn (Apgar score,

causes, management)

c) Uterine and vaginal wall prolapse - nomenclature, classification, causes, types of

treatment

b) Clinical question - Pain in the lower abdomen (differential diagnosis and key diagnostic

parameters)


38.

a) Invasive methods of prenatal diagnosis, indications, treatment options for foetuses in utero

b) Clinical question - Preterm uterine activity after 22nd gestational week (management of the patient - diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment)

c) Examination methods in urogynaecology (overview, typical indications)

d) Clinical question- Prevention of complications after gynaecological surgery (examples of preventive measures)

 

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